MassMutual Jr.Space Camp

(Image Credit: NASA)
In 1922, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) divided the heavens into 88 constellations. Across the ecliptic, in addition to the 12 familiar constellations being the signs of the zodiac, there is another constellation called Ophiuchus. In 2016, some old news was unearthed by the media, saying that NASA would assign Ophiuchus, which sits between Sagittarius and Scorpio. In fact, over 3,000 years ago, the Babylonians had already discovered Ophiuchus. To make a tidy match with their 12-month calendar, the Babylonians ignored the fact that the Sun actually moves through 13 constellations, not 12.

Astrology has divided the zodiac into 12 evenly distributed signs. However, since the constellations in the sky have different sizes, the zodiac signs are not exactly equal to the constellations. Also, because of the change in the Earth’s rotation axis (precession), the zodiac signs move around with respect to the corresponding constellations. Now, the Sun crosses the constellation Ophiuchus from Nov 29 to Dec 18 every year.
Like us on earth, astronauts also need to eat while in space, but what and how they eat differs from what we eat back on earth. In order to reduce weight, space food needs to be dehydrated and sterilized on the ground and then packed and stored in the required amounts. Water can be added and the food can be heated before eating. At meal times, the food can be set to float with the astronauts guiding it into their mouths. It is different from the way we eat on earth.

Nowadays the space shuttles are more spacious, so there is a small galley with an oven for heating food. There are about 70 kinds of food and 20 kinds of beverage. Crew members can enjoy different foods each day.
(Image Credit: NASA)
(Image Credit: NASA)
Stars shine in different colors due to their different surface temperatures. The higher the temperature, the greater the proportion of blue light appearing in its emitted light rays; thus it looks like a blue star. In contrast, the lower the temperature, the greater proportion of red light appears in its emitted light, and thus it looks like a red star.
Relationship between Color and surface temperature of stars
Colors Surface Temperature (Kelvin) Examples
Blue >25,000 Mintaka
Blue white 11,000 - 25,000 Spica
White 7,500 - 11,000 Sirius
Yellowish white 6,000 - 7,500 Procyon
Yellow 5,000 - 6,000 The Sun
Orange 3,500 - 5,000 Arcturus
Red 2,000 - 3,500 Betelgeuse
Astronauts have to wear a spacesuit when they carry out missions in space. Spacesuits can help astronauts cope with unexpected changes in temperature, protect them from small dust particles in space, and filter out some cosmic radiation. So how many layers must a spacesuit have in order to protect an astronaut?
The structure of a spacesuit
1st Layer: To resist high temperatures, reduce radiation and prevent the outer layers of the spacesuit from expanding due to low pressure.
2nd Layer: Coated with special chemical materials to maintain the pressure inside the spacesuit.
3rd Layer: It consists of various channels to remove the heat generated by the astronaut due to metabolism.
(Image Credit: HKedCity)

Asteroid Ida 243 (The first Asteroid to be discovered that it has moon and locates in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter)
(Image Credit: NASA)

To celebrate the successful Olympics Games held in Beijing, an asteroid discovered by China's Purple Mountain Astronomical Observatory, Nanking, on October 12, 1977 was renamed ‘Beijingaoyun’ or Beijing Olympics (Number: 23408) by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) on August 21, 2008.
Belka and Strelka traveled on board Sputnik 5 for their one-day trip into space, accompanied by one grey rabbit, 42 mice, 2 rats, flies and a number of plants and fungi. All the animals were returned to Earth safely. After returning from Space, Strelka gave birth to six puppies, and one of them, called Pushinka, was presented to President John F. Kennedy's children as a gift. Belka and Strelka were kept as specimens and are exhibited around the world and at the Zvezda Museum outside Moscow respectively.
( Image Credit: NASA )
( Image Credit: NASA )   
Comet Lulin was discovered by astronomer Lin Chi-Sheng using a telescope at the Lulin observatory in Taiwan on July 11, 2007. The comet was then identified by Ye Quanzhi from Sun Yat-Sen University in China from the photographs taken by Lin. The closest Comet Lulin has come to the Earth was a distance of around 60 million km, on February 24, 2009, and it was visible to the naked eye in certain rural areas (with a magnitude of about 4 to 5).
The astronauts’ bathroom is a bathing bag tailor-made of special materials. The astronauts climb into the bathing bag and insert the feet into a pair of ‘slippers’ fixed to the floor. They then take out a specially made shower-head and put on a breathing tube, at the same time clipping the nose in order to prevent any sweat and dust getting into their body through the nose. After these preparations they can bathe normally.
(Image Credit: NASA)
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