MassMutual Jr.Space Camp






The Sun
Length of Day (One Rotation) 25.38 Earth days
Surface Temperature Average 5,500°C
Mass 1.989 X 1030 kg
332,900 times the mass of Earth
Density 1.409 g/cm3
0.255 times that of Earth
Volume 1.412 X 1018 km3
1,300,000 times that of Earth
Equatorial Surface Gravity 2.74X102 m/s2
28 times that of Earth



Profile of the Sun
Size: The radius of the Equator is 696,000 km (109 times that of Earth)
Length of Year: 250 million years
Temperature: Surface Temperature around 5,500°C, Core Temperature around 15,000,000°C

Zones of the Sun
The Sun is the star at the centre of our Solar System and it is responsible for 99.8% of the mass of the solar system. The structure of the Sun can be divided into several layers, from the core zone, the solar radiative zone and the convection zone. Above the convection zone is the atmosphere which consists of the photosphere region and the corona.

Age of the Sun
The Sun was formed around 4.6 billion years ago and is currently in the middle of its main-sequence evolution, it is expected to enter its Red Giant phase after 4 to 5 billion years and turn to be a white dwarf eventually.



Mercury

NameSake Mercurius, Messenger of the Roman Gods
Length of Day 58.646 (Earth Day)
Length of Year 87.969 (Earth Day)
Surface Temperature Minimum -173°C,  Maximum 427°C
Moon 0
Average distance from the Sun 5.7909175 X 107km/ 0.387 A.U.
(Astronomical Unit)
Earth is 1 A.U. from the Sun
Mass 3.3022 X 1023 kg
0.055 times the mass of Earth
Density 5.427 g/cm3
0.984 times that of Earth
Volume 6.08272 X 1010 km3
0.054 times that of Earth
Equatorial Surface Gravity 3.7m/s2
0.38 times that of Earth
Atmosphere Very thin atmosphere

* 1. (AU) Astronomical Unit = 149,597,870 km

Structure of Mercury

1. Crust - 100–200 km thick

2. Mantle - 600 km thick

3. Core - 1,800 km radius

Venus
NameSake Venus, Roman Goddess of Love
Length of Day -243 (Earth Day) (Retrograde)
Length of Year 224.7 (Earth Day)
Surface Temperature Average 462°C
Moon 0
Average distance from the Sun 1.0820893 X 108km/ 0.723 A.U.
(Astronomical Unit)
Earth is 1 A.U. from the Sun
Mass 4.8685 X 1024 kg
0.815 times the mass of Earth
Density 5.24 g/cm3
0.95 times that of Earth
Volume 9.284 X 1011 km3
0.88 times that of Earth
Equatorial Surface Gravity 8.87m/s2
0.91 times that of Earth
Atmosphere Carbon Dioxide (96%)
Nitrogen (3%)
Others (1%)
Structure of the Venus

1. Atmosphere
2. Mantle
3. Core
4. Crust



Earth
Length of Day 23.934 (Hours)
Length of Year 365.24 (Earth Day)
Surface Temperature Minimum -88°C,  Maximum 58°C
Moon 1
Average distance from the Sun 1.4959789 X 108km/ 1 A.U.
(Astronomical Unit)
Earth is 1 A.U. from the Sun
Mass 5.9737 X 1024 kg
Density 5.515 g/cm3
Volume 1.0832 X 1012 km3
Equatorial Surface Gravity 9.766m/s2
Atmosphere Nitrogen (78.084%)
Oxygen (20.946%)
Carbon Dioxide (0.03%)
Others (0.94%)
Structure of the Earth

1. Crust (8 to 40km)
2. Mantle (2,900 km)
3. Outer Core (2,250km)
4. Inner Core (1,300km)


Mars
NameSake Mars, Roman God of War
Length of Day 1.026 (Earth Day)
Length of Year 686.93 (Earth Day)
Surface Temperature Minimum -87°C,  Maximum -5°C
Moons 2 (Phobos, Deimos)
Average distance from the Sun 2.2793664 X 108km/ 1.524 A.U.
(Astronomical Unit)
Earth is 1 A.U. from the Sun
Mass 6.4185 X 1023 kg
0.10744 times the mass of Earth
Density 3.94 g/cm3
0.714 times that of Earth
Volume 1.6314 X 1011 km3
0.15 times that of Earth
Equatorial Surface Gravity 3.693m/s2
0.38 times that of Earth
Atmosphere Carbon Dioxide (95.32%)
Nitrogen (2.7%)
Argon (1.6%)
Others (0.38%)
Structure of Mars

1. Crust
2. Mantle
3. Core



Jupiter
NameSake Jupiter, the King of Roman Gods
Length of Day 9 Hours 56 Minutes
Length of Year 4330.6 (Earth Day)
Surface Temperature Average -148°C
Moons 63
Average distance from the Sun 7.7841202 X 108km/ 5.20336 A.U.
(Astronomical Unit)
Earth is 1 A.U. from the Sun
Mass 1.8987 X 1027 kg
317.82 times the mass of Earth
Density 1.33 g/cm3
0.241 times that of Earth
Volume 1.4255 X 1015 km3
1316 times that of Earth
Equatorial Surface Gravity 20.87m/s2
2.14 times that of Earth
Atmosphere Hydrogen (89.8%)
Helium (10.2%)
Structure of Jupiter
  1. Liquid Hydrogen
  2. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen
  3. Liquid mixture of water, methane and ammonia
  4. Rocky Core

Saturn
NameSake Saturnus, Roman God of Agriculture
Length of Day 0.44401 (Earth Day)
Length of Year 29.4 (Earth Years)
Surface Temperature Average -178°C
Moons 61
Average distance from the Sun 1.4267254 X 109km/ 9.53707 A.U.
(Astronomical Unit)
Earth is 1 A.U. from the Sun
Mass 5.6851 X 1026 kg
95.16 times the mass of Earth
Density 0.7 g/cm3
0.127 times that of Earth
Volume 8.2713 X 1014 km3
763.6 times that of Earth

 

Equatorial Surface Gravity 10.4 m/s2
0.91 times that of Earth
Atmosphere Hydrogen (96.3%)
Helium (3.25%)
Others (0.45%)
Structure of Saturn
  1. Atmosphere
  2. Liquid Hydrogen and Helium
  3. Liquid mixture of water, methane and ammonia
  4. Rocky Core


Uranus
NameSake Uranus, Sky God in Greek Mythology
Length of Day -0.7196 (Earth Day) (Retrograde)
Length of Year 84.02 (Earth Years)
Surface Temperature Average -216°C
Moons 27
Average distance
from the Sun
2.8709722 X 109km/ 19.191 A.U.
(Astronomical Unit)
Earth is 1 A.U. from the Sun
Mass 8.6849 X 1025 kg
14.371 times the mass of Earth
Density 1.30 g/cm3
0.236 times that of Earth
Volume 6.8330 X 1013 km3
63.1 times that of Earth
Equatorial Surface Gravity 8.43m/s2
0.86 times that of Earth
Atmosphere Hydrogen (83%)
Helium (15%)
Methane (2%)
Structure of Uranus
  1. Hydrogen/Helium
  2. Mantle
  3. Rocky Core

Neptune

NameSake Neptune, Roman God of the Sea
Length of Day 0.67125 (Earth Day)
Length of Year 164.79 (Earth Years)
Surface Temperature Average -214°C
Moons 13
Average distance from the Sun 4.4982529 X 109km/ 30.069 A.U.
(Astronomical Unit)
Earth is 1 A.U. from the Sun
Mass 1.0244 X 1026 kg
17.147 times the mass of Earth
Density 1.76 g/cm3
0.317 times that of Earth
Volume 6.2526 X 1013 km3
57.7 times that of Earth
Equatorial Surface Gravity 10.71 m/s2
1.1 times that of Earth
Atmosphere Hydrogen (85%)
Helium (13%)
Methane (2%)
Structure of Neptune
  1. Gaseous Hydrogen/ Helium/ Methane
  2. Mantle
  3. Rocky Core



( All images credit: NASA )

and are registered trademarks of Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company and its affiliates. Used under License.
MassMutual Asia Ltd. is not a subsidiary or a group company of Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company.